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La Eurozona no emitirá más billetes de 500 euros

El consejo de gobierno del Banco Central Europeo (BCE) decidió hoy que a finales de 2018 dejará de emitir billetes de 500 euros. Los que están actualmente en circulación se irán retirando progresivamente. Su elevado valor hacía que fueran casi inútiles para los ciudadanos y un arma para actividades ilegales. El BCE aseguró que los billetes seguirán conservando su valor mientras estén en circulación.

El presidente del BCE, Mario Draghi, había publicado en 2009, cuando era gobernador del Banco Central de Italia, un informe en el que aseguraba que los principales usuarios de los billetes de 500 euros eran la mafia y los traficantes de drogas.

El BCE explicó que sus estudios calculaban que un 56% de los ciudadanos europeos nunca había visto un billete de 500 euros, que las empresas se negaban a aceptarlos y que las normas que iban aprobando los países europeos prohibían los pagos en efectivo por encima de ciertas cantidades.

Los últimos billetes de 500 euros fueron emitidos en 2011 por el Banco Central de Austria. Los mayores billetes en euros serán a partir de ahora los de 100 y 200. Los ciudadanos que tengan billetes de 500 euros y quieran deshacerse de ellos podrán hacerlos indefinidamente en las oficinas de los bancos centrales de los 19 países que comparten el euro.

Los "Bin Laden", como eran conocidos coloquialmente porque mucha gente sabía cómo eran pero pocos lo habían visto, fueron introducidos cuando se creó el euro como una concesión a Alemania porque su valor equivalía al antiguo billete de 1.000 marcos alemanes.

El ministro francés de Finanzas Michel Sapin había dicho a principios de año que había que acabar con los billetes de 500 euros porque "se usan más para esconder cosas que para comprar cosas". Los billetes de 500 euros, según el propio BCE, eran en 2015 el 3% de los billetes de euro en circulación pero sumaban el 30% de su valor.

Un estudio de la Universidad de Harvard concluyó que son "el mecanismo de pago preferido por quienes realizan actividades ilícitas, por el anonimato que ofrecen y la relativa facilidad para mover grandes cantidades de dinero". Europol asegura que un millón de euros en billetes de 500 euros pesa dos kilos. En billetes de 100 euros sube a 22 kilos.

España mostró durante los años anteriores a la crisis –durante el boom inmobiliario- que su uso iba a la economía negra. En enero de 2007 el 26,68% de todos los billetes de 500 euros que circulaban en Europa lo hacían en España, cuya economía equivale aproximadamente al 10% de la Eurozona. Con esos billetes se pagaron muchas transacciones inmobiliarias sin dejar rastro. Desde el estallido de la crisis su circulación cayó más de un 40%.

Entre las monedas fuertes sólo es comparable al billete de 1.000 francos suizos. El mayor billete de dólar estadounidense es de 100 y el de libra esterlina de 50, lo que hacía que el de 500 de euro fuera el más apreciado por las actividades ilegales y para guardar dinero negro bajo la cama lejos de los ojos de los inspectores fiscales. Singapur tiene un billete de 10.000 dólares, equivalente a más de 65.000 euros.

Los críticos de la decisión del BCE aseguran que en tiempos de tipos de interés muy bajos –o negativos, como ahora en la Eurozona- y con los países europeos bailando al borde de la deflación, guardar el dinero en efectivo es una solución para no perder ahorros.

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