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¿Ha llegado la hora de decirle adiós a las monedas de uno y dos céntimos?

El hecho de sacar de circulación las monedas de uno y dos céntimos no ha dejado indiferente a nadie. De hecho no es el primer país que decide hacerlo. Dinamarca, Hungría y Suecia ya habían tomado esta decisión antes que los irlandeses con sus respectivas monedas mientras que Finlandia, Países Bajos y Bélgica habían hecho lo propio con los céntimos de Euro.

Pese a que la tendencia de todos los países que adoptaron el Euro como su moneda oficial ha sido la de redondear los precios desde un principio, no ha sido hasta ahora cuando se ha decidido acabar con las dos monedas más pequeñas de la colección. De los 28 estados miembros de la Unión Europea, diecinueve de ellos tienen el Euro como moneda oficial pero, hasta el momento tan solo tres, cuatro si decidimos incluir a Irlanda, han tomado la decisión de acabar con estas monedas.

Desde que pusieron en circulación se han emitido más de 45.800 millones de monedas de uno y dos céntimos, un dato que desde Bruselas han aconsejado rebajar. De hecho, la principal sede administrativa de la Unión Europea ha aconsejado a los Estados que cuentan con el Euro ponderen la pertinencia de mantener las monedas.

¿Por qué se deberían sacar de circulación? En el caso de Irlanda está claro: Producir una moneda de un céntimo cuesta 1,65 céntimos mientras que elaborar una de dos céntimos cuesta 1,94 céntimos. Por lo tanto, fabricar estas monedas no le sale rentable. El banco central irlandés ha estimado que entre 2001 y 2012 Irlanda ha gastado 30 millones de euros en la acuñación de las dos monedas.

¿Cuál es la situación en España?

Las Cajas de Ahorro españolas decidieron apoyar la retirada de las monedas de uno y dos céntimos en 2014 después de haber llevado a cabo un informe. El argumento de las cajas de ahorro es el mismo que ha presentado este mes Irlanda: hoy en día es más caro acuñar las monedas que su valor real. De hecho, el coste de producción llega a rebasar hasta un 60 por ciento del valor.

En lo que respecta al reciclaje de las monedas, las cajas también expresaron que el cobre empleado en la acuñación de las monedas, un material que ha encarecido demasiado en los últimos años, podría aprovecharse para otros usos. En caso de que decidieran sacarlas de la circulación, algo que convence a la Unión Europea, se recuperarían más de 7.000 toneladas de cobre.

En tan solo una década, las monedas han perdido el 24 por ciento de su poder adquisitivo, razón por la cual los españoles tampoco notarían mucho la jubilación de estas monedas que viven junto a nosotros desde enero de 2002.

¿Qué tipo de redondeo se llevaría a cabo en caso de que estas monedas dejaran de existir? En los países que ya han decidido suprimir las monedas de uno y dos céntimos se ha optado por el denominado redondeo sueco. Este método consiste en redondear al múltiplo de cinco más cercano, a la baja si termina en 1, 2, 6 o 7; y al alza si termina en 3, 4, 8 o 9. Este redondeo tan solo se aplica a pagos físicos puesto que en los electrónicos no sería necesario.

¿Cuánto cuesta producir cada moneda?

Cada país cuenta con un mecanismo y volumen concreto. Por lo tanto, el coste unitario de producción no es el mismo. El coste de fabricación de cada moneda de un euro sería de 4,5 céntimos de Euro mientras que la de dos euros ascendería a 5,2 céntimos de Euro. En lo que respecta a las monedas más pequeñas, pese a que nunca se han llegado a dar datos oficiales, el coste de fabricación es similar al de Irlanda, tal y como explicó el Ministerio de Economía: «El coste de fabricación de la moneda de un céntimo supera su valor facial mientras que la de dos céntimos está próxima a su valor facial».

Irlanda ya ha decidido sacarlas de circulación… ¿Quién será la próxima? Todo hace indicar a que con el tiempo todos tomarán esta decisión de ir sacando estas pequeñas monedas, que cada vez usamos menos, del mercado para invertir el cobre en cosas que realmente se necesite.

Fuente: koboonga


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