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Fracasan negociaciones entre Grecia y zona euro: ultimátum a Atenas

Las negociaciones entre Grecia y sus socios de la zona euro terminaron este lunes sin acuerdo y con un ultimátum a Atenas para que pida esta semana una extensión de su programa de rescate financiero.

"Es muy claro que el próximo paso debe venir de las autoridades griegas (...) y dado el calendario, podemos utilizar esta semana, pero es más o menos todo" lo posible, declaró en una conferencia de prensa el presidente del Eurogrupo, Jeroen Dijsselbloem.

"No hay una alternativa al pedido de una extensión", agregó por su parte el comisario de Asuntos Económicos, Pierre Moscovici.

Los ministros de Finanzas se habían reunido este lunes para hallar la forma en que Grecia se financie a corto plazo cuando expire el actual programa a fin de mes.

La zona euro insiste para que Atenas acepte una extensión de su programa de rescate, por el que recibió desde 2010 unos 240.000 millones de euros a cambio de drásticas reformas, algunas de las cuales deben aún completarse, antes de comenzar una discusión sobre la "flexibilidad" que pueda obtener Grecia con las condiciones actuales.

Pero el nuevo gobierno griego quiere poner fin con las políticas de austeridad impuestas por sus acreedores, la Comisión Europea, el Banco Central Europeo y el Fondo Monetario Internacional.

Atenas en cambio propone, según una fuente con acceso a las negociaciones, "enmendar el actual programa y un periodo de transición de seis meses", es decir un puente financiero para mantenerse a flote, acompañado por reformas propuestas por el gobierno y no impuestas por sus acreedores, dejando de lado las que son consideradas como más antisociales.

"Pedimos unos meses de estabilidad financiera que nos permitan lanzarnos en las reformas (...), para que podamos volver a crecer y poner fin a nuestra imposibilidad de pagar nuestra deuda", escribió el ministro de Finanzas griego, Yanis Varoufakis, en una columna publicada este lunes por el New York Times.

Propuesta "absurda" e "inaceptable"

La reunión de los ministros duró apenas tres horas. Hacia el final de la tarde una fuente gubernamental en Atenas indicó que Grecia había rechazado un proyecto de declaración presentado por Dijsselbloem durante el cónclave, al considerarla "absurda" e "inaceptable".

"La insistencia de algunas personas en pedir al nuevo gobierno griego aplicar el plan de rescate es absurdo e inaceptable, y en esas circunstancias no puede haber acuerdo esta noche", indicó esta fuente.

Pocos minutos después se anunciaba en Bruselas la conferencia de prensa final por el presidente del Eurogrupo, dejando así en evidencia el fin abrupto de la reunión.

Según una copia del texto de declaración divulgado en la sala de prensa, "las autoridades griegas indicaron sobre su intención de concluir con éxito el programa".

"Hay un solo camino razonable, el de una extensión técnica con flexibilidades, posibilidades de cambiar elementos del programa anterior", dijo por su parte el ministro francés Michel Sapin en conferencia de prensa.

"Si las autoridades griegas quieren ir por ese camino, habrá una reunión el próximo viernes para tomar nota de esta decisión", añadió.

Sin un acuerdo, Grecia, que tiene que pagar por la emisión de su deuda un rendimiento muy elevado, se quedará sin financiamiento lo que podría empujarla fuera de la zona euro.

En el peor de los casos, una salida caótica del euro --popularmente llamada "Grexit"--, podría poner en jaque todo el proyecto de unión monetaria, aunque los analistas afirman que esta posibilidad es menos probable ahora que en la crisis que enfrentó el país hace cuatro años.

Antes de comenzada la reunión el escepticismo prevalecía. Durante el fin de semana, los expertos del gobierno griego y de la Comisión Europea, el BCE y FMI mantuvieron discusiones técnicas para "identificar los puntos divergentes y ver cómo superarlos", pero "fueron incapaces de lograrlo", señaló Dijsselbloem.

"Lo que escuché hasta ahora (de parte de Atenas) no alimenta mi optimismo. Por supuesto no tenemos ningún resultado. (...) Soy muy escéptico", dijo el ministro alemán, Wolfgang Schauble, al llegar a la reunión preguntándose "qué es lo que realmente quiere Grecia".

La "discusión será complicada", había vaticinado Pierre Moscovici antes del encuentro. "Hay un programa (...). Es en ese marco en el que trabajamos", dijo.

Hasta último momento se intentó hallar una base de compromiso. Este lunes por la mañana los "sherpas" de los 19 miembros de la Eurozona encargados de los temas económicos volvieron a reunirse para acercar posiciones. La reunión finalizó sin éxito.

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